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Since April , videos continue to be monetized while the dispute is in progress, and the money goes to whoever won the dispute. YouTube has also faced criticism over the handling of offensive content in some of its videos.
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The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is forbidden by YouTube's "Community Guidelines". Controversial content has included material relating to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster , in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link from every YouTube page to make this process as easy as possible for our users.
Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly. In October , U. YouTube's policies on " advertiser-friendly content " restrict what may be incorporated into videos being monetized; this includes strong violence, language, sexual content, and "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown", unless the content is "usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator's intent is to inform or entertain".
DeFranco argued that not being able to earn advertising revenue on such videos was "censorship by a different name". A YouTube spokesperson stated that while the policy itself was not new, the service had "improved the notification and appeal process to ensure better communication to our creators".
In March , the government of the United Kingdom pulled its advertising campaigns from YouTube, after reports that its ads had appeared on videos containing extremist content. The government demanded assurances that its advertising would "be delivered in a safe and appropriate way". The Guardian newspaper, as well as other major British and U. Google stated that it had "begun an extensive review of our advertising policies and have made a public commitment to put in place changes that give brands more control over where their ads appear".
The video was retracted after it was found that the ads had actually been triggered by the use of copyrighted content in the video.
On April 6, , YouTube announced that in order to "ensure revenue only flows to creators who are playing by the rules", it would change its practices to require that a channel undergo a policy compliance review, and have at least 10, lifetime views, before they may join the Partner Program. In January , YouTube creator Logan Paul faced criticism for a video he had uploaded from a trip to Japan, where he encountered a body of a suicide death in the Aokigahara forest.
The corpse was visible in the video, although its face was censored. The video proved controversial due to its content, with its handling of the subject matter being deemed insensitive by critics. On January 10—eleven days after the video was published—YouTube announced that it would cut Paul from the Google Preferred advertising program. Six days later, YouTube announced tighter thresholds for the partner program to "significantly improve our ability to identify creators who contribute positively to the community", under which channels must have at least 4, hours of watch time within the past 12 months and at least 1, subscribers.
YouTube also announced that videos approved for the Google Preferred program would become subject to manual review, and that videos would be rated based on suitability with advertisers allowed to choose. These changes led to further criticism of YouTube from independent channels, who alleged that the service had been changing its algorithms to give a higher prominence to professionally-produced content such as celebrities, music videos and clips from late night talk shows , that attract wide viewership and has a lower risk of alienating mainstream advertisers, at the expense of the creators that had bolstered the service's popularity.
YouTube has been criticized for using an algorithm that gives great prominence to videos that promote conspiracy theories, falsehoods and incendiary fringe discourse. When users show a political bias in what they choose to view, YouTube typically recommends videos that echo those biases, often with more-extreme viewpoints. In , it was revealed that advertisements were being placed on extremist videos, including videos by rape apologists, anti-Semites and hate preachers who received ad payouts. Alex Jones , known for far-right conspiracy theories, had built a massive audience on YouTube.
In January , YouTube said that it had introduced a new policy intended to stop recommending videos containing "content that could misinform users in harmful ways. A July study found that when users searched for videos related to the climate and climate change, the majority of videos were videos that communicated views contrary to the scientific consensus on climate change.
A BBC investigation found that YouTube's algorithm promoted health misinformation, including fake cancer cures. Leading into , there was a significant increase in the number of videos related to children, coupled between the popularity of parents vlogging their family's activities, and previous content creators moving away from content that often was criticized or demonetized into family-friendly material.
During Q2 , the owners of popular channel DaddyOFive , which featured themselves playing "pranks" on their children, were accused of child abuse.
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Their videos were eventually deleted, and two of their children were removed from their custody. Her videos would later be deleted. Later that year, YouTube came under criticism for showing inappropriate videos targeted at children and often featuring popular characters in violent, sexual or otherwise disturbing situations, many of which appeared on YouTube Kids and attracted millions of views. The term " Elsagate " was coined on the Internet and then used by various news outlets to refer to this controversy.
Later that month, the company started to mass delete videos and channels that made improper use of family friendly characters. As part as a broader concern regarding child safety on YouTube, the wave of deletions also targeted channels which showed children taking part in inappropriate or dangerous activities under the guidance of adults. Most notably, the company removed Toy Freaks , a channel with over 8.
Even for content that appears to aimed at children and appears to contain only child-friendly content, YouTube's system allows for anonymity of who uploads these videos. These questions have been raised in the past, as YouTube has had to remove channels with children's content which, after becoming popular, then suddenly include inappropriate content masked as children's content. The channel is reportedly owned by Treasure Studio, but journalists have not able to confirm any associated with the studio or channel.
In January , YouTube officially banned videos containing "challenges that encourage acts that have an inherent risk of severe physical harm" such as, for example, the Tide Pod Challenge , and videos featuring pranks that "make victims believe they're in physical danger" or cause emotional distress in children. Also in November , it was revealed in the media that many videos featuring children — often uploaded by the minors themselves, and showing innocent content such as the children playing with toys or performing gymnastics — were attracting comments from pedophiles   with predators finding the videos through private YouTube playlists or typing in certain keywords in Russian.
As a result of the controversy, which added to the concern about "Elsagate", several major advertisers whose ads had been running against such videos froze spending on YouTube. In February , YouTube vlogger Matt Watson identified a "wormhole" that would cause the YouTube recommendation algorithm to draw users into this type of video content, and make all of that user's recommended content feature only these types of videos.
Most of these videos had comments from sexual predators commenting with timestamps of when the children were shown in compromising positions, or otherwise making indecent remarks. In some cases, other users had reuploaded the video in unlisted form but with incoming links from other videos, and then monetized these, propagating this network. A spokesperson explained that "any content — including comments — that endangers minors is abhorrent and we have clear policies prohibiting this on YouTube.
There's more to be done, and we continue to work to improve and catch abuse more quickly. Subsequently, YouTube began to demonetize and block advertising on the types of videos that have drawn these predatory comments. The service explained that this was a temporary measure while they explore other methods to eliminate the problem. These actions mainly target videos of toddlers, but videos of older children and teenagers may be protected as well if they contain actions that can be interpreted as sexual, such as gymnastics.
YouTube stated it was also working on a better system to remove comments on other channels that matched the style of child predators. YouTube apologized for the errors, and reinstated the affected videos. YouTube stated they do not take action on any video with these comments but those that they have flagged that are likely to draw child predator activity. In June , The New York Times cited researchers who found that users who watched erotic videos could be recommended seemingly innocuous videos of children.
In order to comply with the settlement, YouTube subsequently announced that within four months, it would perform major changes to its handling of content targeting children on the platform. Among the changes will be that videos "clearly" targeting minors must be manually or algorithmically marked, and that YouTube will no longer collect any user data unless strictly necessary in order to offer the service or display targeted advertising when viewing such videos.
Features such as comments will be disabled. In particular, the FTC ruled that YouTube was partly liable under COPPA, as the service's rating and curation of content as being suitable for children constituted the targeting of the website towards children. Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content.
In , Time praised Web 2. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred". In September , The Daily Telegraph commented that YouTube was "notorious" for "some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet", and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, "a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts". The stated motivation for the change was giving creators more power to moderate and block comments, thereby addressing frequent criticisms of their quality and tone.
In the same article Melvin goes on to say: . Think of the crude, misogynistic and racially-charged mudslinging that has transpired over the last eight years on YouTube without any discernible moderation. Isn't any attempt to curb unidentified libelers worth a shot? The system is far from perfect, but Google should be lauded for trying to alleviate some of the damage caused by irate YouTubers hiding behind animosity and anonymity. On November 3, , YouTube announced a trial scheme which allows the creators of videos to decide whether to approve, hide or report the comments posted on videos based on an algorithm that detects potentially offensive comments.
They can also allow other users to moderate their comments. In December , two billion views were removed from the view counts of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot that the views had been deleted due to a violation of the site's terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate view counts. This was disputed by Billboard , which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube.
In , YouTube introduced a system that would automatically add information boxes to videos that its algorithms determined may present conspiracy theories and other fake news , filling the infobox with content from Encyclopedia Britannica and Wikipedia as a means to inform users to minimize misinformation propagation without impacting freedom of speech.
Several users complained to YouTube about this inappropriate connection. YouTube officials apologized for this, stating that their algorithms had misidentified the fire videos and added the information block automatically, and were taking steps to remedy this.
The plaintiffs claimed that the algorithms discourage content with words like "lesbian" or "gay", which would be predominant in their channels' content, and because of YouTube's near-monopolization of online video services, they are abusing that position.
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In October YouTube deactivated two channels run by "pick-up artists" after a BBC investigation into the online industry. The company said: It added: "YouTube strictly prohibits explicit sexual, graphic or harassing content. Nothing is more important than protecting the safety of our community, and we will continue to review and refine our policies in this area. YouTube was blocked in Uzbekistan in October for unknown reasons. People in the country rely on virtual private network software to circumvent the blockage.
On January 15, it was reported that the blockage had been repealed, but it lasted only for 6—7 hours. Governments block YouTube for a variety of reasons, including: . In some countries, YouTube is completely blocked, either through a long term standing ban or for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries.
In other countries access to the website as a whole remains open, but access to specific videos is blocked. In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service. Businesses, schools, government agencies, and other private institutions often block social media sites, including YouTube, due to bandwidth limitations and the site's potential for distraction.
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Main article: Content ID algorithm. Main article: Censorship of YouTube. Has local YouTube version. Currently blocked. Previously blocked. This audio file was created from a revision of the article " YouTube " dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Audio help. More spoken articles. The Register. Retrieved September 16, Official Google Code Blog. Retrieved March 25, Retrieved October 13, October 23, Retrieved October 1, Los Angeles, CA. Retrieved June 10, Retrieved November 3, The Guardian.
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Archived from the original on June 22, Retrieved June 20, June 6, Retrieved December 22, November 15, Retrieved November 20, Penske Media Corporation. She stayed home and campaigned against a new European Union law that could hold services like YouTube liable if their users upload copyrighted content.
Wojcicki largely has not. I wanted to get a better sense of what she was like as a C. And so over the last several months, I spoke to more than a dozen current and former YouTube and Google employees and interviewed Ms. Wojcicki three times. What I found was both reassuring and alarming. But her deliberate style may be at odds with the pace and scale of horrors and just plain stupidity that relentlessly arises on YouTube.
Wojcicki seemed taken aback. In an April 7 interview, she said YouTube has not ignored its problem with hosting extreme and conspiracy-minded content. She said it was a large and complex issue and the company was starting to make a dent. Wojcicki said. At one policy review meeting I observed in San Bruno, her methodical approach was on full display. Rather than bursting, the condoms inverted and engulfed their faces like a fishbowl. Wojcicki pondered whether the clip, which has nearly 15 million views, was merely juvenile or crossed the line to life-threatening.
Wojcicki and her staff considered their thicket of policies. One staffer ventured that the condom challenge seemed to belong in the former category. Wojcicki disagreed. But the video stayed up. For every minute Ms. Wojcicki spent discussing it, users uploaded to the site an additional hours of footage. Unlike many of her tech-C. But in , Ms. Wojcicki and her husband rented part of their Menlo Park, Calif.
They had just started a search engine called Google. Wojcicki joined Google as its 16th employee and its first marketing manager. With a baby on the way, she was going to work for a company with no revenue. She helped turn Google into a juggernaut, developing its signature advertising product, AdWords, and overseeing its first foray into content sharing, called Google Video. Over the years, Ms. Wojcicki built a personal fortune estimated in the hundreds of millions, and she remains a close confidant of Mr. She is the oldest of three sisters; the middle one, Janet, is an anthropologist, epidemiologist and former Fulbright scholar; and the youngest, Anne, co-founded 23andMe, the DNA testing company.
Anne was also married to Mr. Brin until Being part of a high-profile clan can cause confusion. Dale recalls sheepishly calling his boss — who had been married for more than 20 years — in the middle of a parent-teacher meeting to ask if she was having an affair. She was not. Anne, not Susan, had been seeing Mr. Since taking over YouTube, fame has been something Ms. Wojcicki has tried to avoid. But she is warm and approachable in person, and for one recent interview, she arrived at the office dressed like any other Google employee, with black cowboy boots and a backpack slung over one shoulder, ready to discuss her track record.
Would I feel proud? Will my children feel like I made good decisions? Whether vacuous or violent, YouTube troubles arise at a dumbfounding pace. Confronted by one crisis after another, Ms. Wojcicki has introduced policies to curb the spread of problematic videos and raised the bar on which videos can carry advertising.
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The challenge is cleaning up the mess while keeping her various constituencies — users, creators, advertisers, parents, lawmakers — happy, or at least not irate. When she became C. Wojcicki inherited an audacious goal: Get users to watch more than one billion hours of videos every day, a tenfold increase from After registering for an account, users can create their own personalized channel to upload videos, create playlists, and bookmark their favorite videos. If you are looking for a specific person on YouTube, there are a few easy steps you can take.
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